Extratropical Cyclone

Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are a meteorologically complex hazard with highly variable regional manifestations. AIR models help you assess the risk, whether from wind, snow, freezing precipitation and temperatures, or the relentless clustering of storms in space and time.


Realistically capture the formation and behavior of ETCs.

AIR ETC models employ Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), a physical modeling approach that can effectively capture the complex three-dimensional structure of damaging ETC winds in time and space.

Learn about our ETC model for Europe

Incorporate a more realistic view of surface wind speeds in loss estimations.

Use high-resolution land use/land cover and elevation data to capture realistic winds at the surface, where exposure is at risk.

Evaluate damage by sub-peril.

In the U.S. and Canada, ETCs are often accompanied by wind, snow, sleet, and freezing temperatures, all of which damage property differently. AIR ETC models employ damage functions that capture the specific mechanisms by which each of these perils causes loss.


Understand the impact of regional climate on storms.

AIR ETC models capture the rich variation in regional storm experience, including the tendency of storms to arrive in clusters over northern Europe, the frequency of ice storms in the Great Lakes region of the U.S. and Canada, and the impact of fierce Nor'easters along the U.S.'s Eastern Seaboard.

Explore our U.S. winter storm model


Consider differences in regional vulnerability.

Take into consideration variations in building codes, structural design, and construction practices by location.

Account for indirect sources of loss.

Supplier downtime, utility service interruption, and actions taken by civil authorities that may cause operational shut downs are recognized within AIR ETC models.

Model a wide range of policy terms.

AIR ETC models support a variety of policy conditions, including coverage limits, deductibles, loss triggers, and reinsurance conditions.

Discover our winter storm model for Canada

AIR currently offers extratropical cyclone models for:

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