Industrial Facility Occupancies

AIR provides the following codes for industrial facility occupancies. Since AIR has not mapped SIC codes to 400-series codes, "n/a" indicates that the column is not applicable.

Occupancy Code

Category

SIC2-Digit

Description

400

Unknown Industrial Facility

n/a

A composite of all other industrial facility occupancies. Select this code if you have no specific information about the industrial facility risk.

401

Heavy Fabrication and Assembly - General

n/a

Usually large, generally constructed warehouses, one to four stories tall with large open floor plans. Large cranes are the most common components. Includes manufacturing and processing of automobiles, fabricated metal products, machinery/equipment for industry, transportation equipment, pulp/paper and allied products, textile products, lumber and wood products, and stone/glass/clay/ceramics products.

402

Automotive Manufacturing

n/a

Large facilities that assemble automobiles. The facilities are typically very large warehouses with large open floor plans. The facilities produce anywhere from 20,000 to over 1 million cars per year. In the United States most of the facilities are found in the mid-west with the exception of the Tesla factory in California. Japan, Korea, China, Germany and Mexico are also home to many of these large facilities.

Typical facility components: Robots, assembly lines, and conveyor systems.

Typical raw materials: Sheet metal, electrical wiring, automotive glass, electronic systems, paint, fabrics, batteries, and tires.

Typical finished products: Cars, trucks, vans, etc.

403

Fabricated Metal Products

n/a

Large facilities that specialize in the building of metal structures. The facilities are typically large open floor warehouses where workers bend, weld, cut, and form steel to construct large structures (such as trusses and frames) that will be taken to a construction site.

Typical facility components: Cranes/hoists, welders, cutters (water, plasma, and gas torch), and hydraulic mechanisms.

Typical raw materials: Sheet metal, plate metal, and metal beams.

Typical finished products: Metal trusses, metal frames, and metal tanks.

404

Industrial and Commercial Machinery and Equipment

n/a

Large, generally constructed warehouses for the manufacturing of machines, tools, and factory equipment for consumers and the heavy industry. The facilities are one to four stories tall with large open floor plans where a range of components can be set up to manufacture a given product.

Typical facility components: Cranes/hoists, welders, cutters (water, plasma, and gas torch), hydraulic mechanisms, robots, and conveyor systems.

Typical raw materials: Metals, rubber, plastic, wiring, and glass.

Typical finished products: Turbines, tractors, industrial robots, and power tools.

405

Transportation Equipment Assembly

n/a

Large generally constructed warehouses for the building and assembly of large transportation devices. The facilities are one to four stories tall with large open floor plans where the extremely products can be fully assembled.

Typical facility components: Cranes/hoists, welders, cutters (water, plasma, and gas torch), hydraulic mechanisms (for bending, pressing, and shaping), robots, and conveyor systems.

Typical raw materials: Metals, rubber, plastic, wiring, and glass.

Typical finished products: Planes, trains, and buses.

406

Pulp/Paper and Allied Products Manufacturing

n/a

Facilities that chemically or mechanically separate cellulose fibers from wood, recycled paper, and fiber crops, to form pulp/paper/wood chips. They cover a relatively large area, and their raw material and finished product storage account for a portion of this. Raw materials are generally stored outside, as are some of the intermediate materials such as wood chips. The facilities first produce pulp and wood chips from logs. The pulp can either be turned into a finished product at the same location, or, typically, it is dried and sent to other facilities that produce paper and other similar products. The wood chips follow the same chain of events but are only used to produce fiber board. These facilities resemble a mix between an oil refinery, lumber mill, and cement mill. There are a variety of facilities in this category that may look and function differently. For example, a pulp facility may look and function completely differently than a facility that makes large rolls of paper.

Typical facility components: Grinders/refiners, chimneys, silos, tanks, screens, conveyers, packagers, and cranes/hoists.

Typical raw materials: Logs, wood chips, sawdust, and recycled paper products.

Typical finished products: Large paper rolls, fiberboard, dry pulp, and paper products.

407

Textile Mill Products

n/a

Facilities that transform natural or synthetic fibers into sheets of material that can later be manufactured into usable items. The facilities are generally constructed warehouses with a large open floor plan. No additional structural design requirements are required for the building. They are usually one story tall and are not required to be purpose-built facilities.

Typical facility components: Rows of spindles where spools of thread are neatly organized and connected to the machine. At the end of the row, spindles weave thread into large rolls of fabric.

Typical raw materials: Thread.

Typical finished products: Rolls of fabric.

408

Lumber and Wood Products (Except Furniture)

n/a

Facilities that process trees into finished wood lumber that a consumer would buy at a local lumber yard. The facilities have a footprint that is a mixture of indoor and outdoor space. Many of these facilities have been in operation for more than a hundred years and have not undergone considerable changes during this time. They are durable, time-tested facilities. A modern facility operates on a larger scale with more automated equipment. The facilities are usually located near some source of major transportation such a as a railroad or near oceans and rivers where large amounts and raw material and finished products can be transported easily.

Typical facility components: Saws, sanders, conveyor systems, some office space, sorters and stackers, and automated systems.

Typical raw materials: Logs and timber.

Typical finished products: All types of lumber.

409

Stone/Clay/Glass/Ceramics Products

n/a

Facilities that are available in a range of forms. The facilities melt/form and finish several products from earthen materials. Glass manufacturing facilities are frequently long buildings with a furnace at one end and finished product storage at the other, with a single production machine connecting the two ends. Facilities for ceramic products such as tiles are slightly different, containing more machinery such as conveyor systems, kilns, and finishing/ glazing machines. The facilities are usually purpose-built. In all these facilities there are areas for raw material and finished product storage. The products are made from the melting and forming of one or several raw earth materials. Much of the finishing of these products is done in large warehouses where long sheets and/or slabs can be formed as a single unit before being cut. For ceramic and glass products large furnaces are needed.

Typical facility components: Kilns, furnaces, float glass machines, conveyor systems, cranes, silos, and emission control systems.

Typical raw materials: Sand, clay, stone, limestone, and other similar materials.

Typical finished products: Sheet glass, tiles, slabs of stone, and bricks.

414

Light Fabrication and Assembly - General

n/a

Facilities that manufacture and process furniture/fixtures, apparel, printing/publishing/allied products, rubber, miscellaneous products, leather/leather products, electronic/other electronic equipment (except computer equipment), measuring/controlling instruments, photographic/medical/optical goods, watches/clocks, tire manufacturers, and miscellaneous manufacturing industries. Light industry is usually less capital-intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediate products for use by other industries). Light industries require a comparatively small amount of raw materials, area and power. The goods are easy to transport, and the volume of production is high.

415

Furniture and Fixtures

n/a

Facilities that manufacture furniture and fixtures. The facilities are generally warehouses that have a relatively large, open footprint. Employees and robots work together to assemble products. The facilities store raw materials and finished products on  site and have extensive loading and unloading platforms.

Typical facility components: Roller table systems, robots, air compressors, automated cutting machines, air filtration systems and dust collectors, hoists, forklifts, and loading docks.

Typical raw materials: Wood, metal, fabric, glass, and plastic.

Typical finished products: Chairs, beds, lighting fixtures, desks, and similar products.

416

Apparel and Finished Products from Fabrics

n/a

Facilities that manufacture sheets of fabric that are transformed into consumer goods within the textile plants. The facilities are large open floor plan warehouses. Many employees work at individual stations sewing, pressing, and assembling products. These are generally constructed warehouses that can be purpose-built or repurposed.

Typical facility components: Manual sewing machines, rolling table systems, automated cutting/ sewing/gluing/pressing machines, molds, fans, air filtration systems, raw material and finished product storage, loading docks.

Typical raw materials: Cotton-based fabric, synthetic-based fabric, rubber, glue, and thread.

Typical finished products: Clothes, shoes, bags, and bedding.

417

Print/Publishing and Associated Industries

n/a

Facilities that print, publish, and ship consumer products. The facilities are usually large warehouses with office space and industrial manufacturing space. Usually dealing with paper, the facilities include manufacturers of magazines, newspapers, books, and posters.

Typical facility components: Roller printer press, conveyor systems, rolling table systems, presses, dryers, robots, automated systems/computers, raw material and finished product storage, lifts/hoists, forklifts, and loading docks.

Typical raw materials: Paper, ink, wax, and plastic.

Typical finished products: Books, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, and posters.

418

Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products

n/a

Facilities that manufacture rubber and plastic consumer products from plastic and rubber raw material. These generally constructed facilities have large open floor plans where the plastic forming/ molding machines can be arranged into many rows for optimal production.

Typical facility components: Hoppers, molds, furnaces/heaters, silos, tanks, dryers/blowers/fan, conveyor systems, robot, air filtration systems, cutters, packagers, and loading docks.

Typical raw materials: Polypropylene pellets, polyethylene pellets (LDPE), synthetic and natural elastomers and copolymers (latex, neoprene, polybutadiene, bisphenol A).

Typical finished products: Plastic bottles, plastic bags, plastic trays/holders, rubber bands, containers, erasers, and plastic films.

419

Leather and Leather Products

n/a

Facilities that process animal skins (hides) into leather material for leather products. This process is known as tanning and the facilities are known as tanneries. These generally constructed warehouses house all the raw materials, finished products, and leather making equipment.

Typical facility components: Rolling tanks, rollers, dryers, and extensive waste water treatment systems.

Typical raw materials: Raw hides, water, and chemicals.

Typical finished products: Leather hides, boots, belts, jackets, other apparel, and furniture.

420

Electronic and Other Electrical Equipment (Except Computer Equipment)

n/a

Facilities that are engaged in manufacturing machinery, apparatuses, and supplies for the generation, storage, transmission, transformation, and use of electrical energy. Included are the manufacture of electricity distribution equipment, electrical industrial apparatuses, household appliances, electrical lighting and wiring equipment, radio and television receiving equipment, communications equipment, electronic components and accessories, and other electrical equipment and supplies. These generally constructed facilities may have some type of clean room/climate control systems for specific parts of the manufacture of certain products. They are generally, but not necessarily, purpose-built facilities.

Typical facility components: Cutting/molding/etching machines (laser, water, drill), computers, conveyor system/assembly line (automated, semi-automated, and manual), and packaging machines.

Typical raw materials: Metals, plastics, cerium, silicon, chromium, zinc copper, gold, gasses (neon, xenon, argon), microchips, wires, printed circuit boards, resistors, transistors, batteries and connectors, hard drives, and glass.

Typical finished products: Printers, communication equipment, appliances (microwaves), televisions, and cameras.

421

Measuring, Analyzing, and Controlling Instruments

n/a

Facilities that are engaged in the manufacture of delicate instruments (including professional and scientific instruments) and their associated sensors and accessories for measuring, testing, analyzing, and controlling. These products may include surveying and drafting instruments, hydrological, hydrographic, meteorological, and geophysical equipment, search, detection, navigation, and guidance systems and equipment. These facilities share many characteristics with the 420 class of industrial facilities, with the exception that they generally feature more precise equipment and more quality and climate control.

Typical facility components: Clean rooms, computer/automated systems, robotic systems, assembly lines, and quality control machines.

Typical raw materials: Electronic components, metal, glass, and plastic.

Typical finished products: Scales, microscopes, calibration devices, and detection devices.

422

Photographic, Medical, and Optical Goods

n/a

Facilities that are engaged in the manufacture of instruments (including professional and scientific) including: optical instruments and lenses; surgical, medical, and dental instruments, equipment, and supplies; ophthalmic goods; photographic equipment and supplies. These facilities share characteristics with the buildings in classes 420 and 421. Categories 420, 421, and 422 are extremely similar and are often grouped into one category, such as OSHA Manufacturing groupings.

Typical facility components: Clean rooms, computer/automated systems, robotic systems, assembly lines, and quality control machines.

Typical raw materials: Electronic components, metal, glass, and plastic.

Typical finished products: Cameras, camera lenses, MRI machines, CAT scan machines, X-Ray machines, optometry machines, and lenses for glasses.

423

Watches and Clocks

n/a

Facilities that are engaged in manufacturing of watches and clocks. The facilities are similar to the Electronic and Other Electrical Equipment facility in terms of typical facility components and raw materials, with the exception of high-end watch makers that produce watches on a small scale.

Typical facility components: Cutting/molding/etching machines (laser, water, drill), assembly line (automated, semi-automated, manual), and packaging machines.

Typical raw materials: Metals, plastics, cerium, silicon, chromium, zinc copper, gold, gasses (neon, xenon, argon), microchips, batteries, and glass.

Typical finished products: Watches and clocks.

424

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries

n/a

Facilities that primarily engaged in manufacturing products not classified in any other Light Fabrication And Assembly (General) major manufacturing group.

Typical facility components: Assembly lines/conveyor systems, computer/automated robotic systems, printing machines, cutting machines, 3D printers, tanks, silos, packaging machines, raw material storage, and finished product storage.

Typical raw materials: Metals, plastics, glass, textiles, wood, and gasses.

Typical finished products: Jewelry, silverware, plated ware, musical instruments, dolls, toys, games, sporting and athletic goods, pens, pencils, artists' materials, buttons, costume novelties, brooms and brushes, caskets, and 3D printed products.

425

Tire Manufacturers

n/a

Facilities that manufacture tires from rubber and various other materials. These are large facilities that are usually purpose-built. They include many different areas for different sections of the production of tires (e.g. a section where raw materials are turned into a rubber compound, and different sections for each part of the product as it moves towards its finished state). They house robust machinery.

Typical facility components: Silos, furnaces, rollers/conveyor systems, molds, robots/automated machines, and extruders.

Typical raw materials: Elastomers (synthetic and natural rubber), carbon black, sulfur, metal wires, and textiles (rayon, aramid, nylon, polyester).

Typical finished products: Tires.

429

Food and Drug Processing - General

n/a

Facilities within this category are generally constructed buildings that are usually purpose-built. There are many different kinds of facilities within this category, including those involved in the manufacture of food and kindred products, drugs, tobacco products, wine, and alcohol.

430

Food and Kindred Products

n/a

Facilities that manufacture or process foods and beverages for human consumption, and certain related products, such as manufactured ice, chewing gum, vegetable and animal fats and oils, and prepared feeds for animals and fowls. Products described as dietetic are classified in the same manner as non-dietetic products (e.g., candy, canned fruits, cookies). Chemical sweeteners are classified in another major group. These are generally constructed buildings that are usually purpose-built. There are many different kinds of food and kindred product facilities, owing to the wide variety of types of finished products they produce. Most facilities that produce food products require a large fridge or freezer (or both) for raw material or finished product storage (or both). Some of these facilities produce a wider variety of products, thus having different sections of the factory for different products or procedures. For example, in a particular food product facility there could be an oven or cooking section followed by a flash freezing or canning section. These facilities range in size from small family run facilities to facilities run by large wholesale companies that produce goods on the scale of a large manufacturing facility.

Typical facility components: Ovens, cold storage (refrigerators, freezers), freeze dryers, flash freezers, tanks/vats/mixers, conveyor systems, boilers, robots and automated systems, pressurized vessels, and packaging machines.

Typical raw materials: Meats, vegetables, sugar, grains, salts, starches, other preservatives (sodium benzoate), artificial sweeteners, chilled ammonia (gas) for freezing.

Typical finished products: Canned goods, frozen goods, baked goods, candy, and refrigerated goods (meat, fish, and cheese, among others).

431

Tobacco Products

n/a

Facilities that process tobacco leaves into a number of finished products, package them, and ship them. The facilities are about the same size as the average food and drug processing facilities. They are fairly simple facilities that have become more and more automated over time.

Typical facility components: Leaf shredders, tanks, silos, drying barns, rollers, automated conveyor systems, and packaging machines.

Typical raw materials: Tobacco leaves, filters, paper, and chemicals (propylene glycol).

Typical finished products: Cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, and pipe tobacco.

432

Pharmaceutical Plants

n/a

Facilities that produce drugs as tablets, liquids, gels, packaging, labeling, processing, etc. Pharmaceutical manufacturing encompasses the end-process that drug formulations have to undergo before being sold to consumers. The facilities are most similar to high technology facilities due to their high degree of climate and quality control. They operate on a small scale with hazardous and high-value chemicals. They are purpose-built facilities that are retrofitted with sophisticated equipment.

Typical facility components: Clean room, pill pressing machines, air filtration systems, packaging machines, conveyor systems, and pressurizing tanks.

Typical raw materials: Natural and synthetic chemicals.

Typical finished products: Prescription drugs (tablets, capsules, and liquids).

433

Biological Products (Except Diagnostic) Medicinals/Botanicals/Biomedical

n/a

Facilities that produce biologics (biological products) are medical products. Many biologics are made from a variety of natural sources (human, animal or microorganism).

434

Wineries

n/a

Facilities where grapes are grown, harvested, processed, fermented, aged, and then bottled and shipped. On a large scale, wineries share many characteristics with a food and kindred product facility that is focused on making drinks or other processed products that require mixing in large vats. Wineries are simple facilities that are primarily made up of tanks, either for mixing and mashing or for storage and aging of the finished products. On a slightly smaller scale, wineries still operate mostly the same way as they have for hundreds of years, and storage is done in large wooden casks, as opposed to being done in metal tanks.

Typical facility components: Harvesting machines, juicing/processing tanks, filters, fermentation tanks, pipes, barrels, and bottling machines.

Typical raw materials: Grapes

Typical finished products: Wine.

438

Chemical Processing - General

n/a

Facilities that manufacture basic chemicals (including acids, alkalis, salts, and organic chemicals) and chemical products for use in further manufacturing of other products (including synthetic fibers, plastic materials, dry colors, and pigments).

Typical facility components: Separation and filtration systems (distillation towers, sedimentation), silos, conveyor systems, piping, pumps, storage tanks, horizontal/vertical vessels (compressors, vacuums), drying systems, and water treatment systems.

Typical raw materials: Petroleum by-products (naphtha) liquid, butanes (gas), salts, and mineral acids.

Typical finished products: Rubbers, acids, plastics, resins, fertilizers, paints, and cleaning products.

439

Chlorine Plants

n/a

Facilities that produce chlorine (Cl) through the electrolysis process, which takes place in an electrolytic cell. There are three main types of electrolysis cells: mercury, membrane, and diaphragm. During the electrolysis process, electric current is passed through a brine (usually salt water), producing several gasses and liquids.

Typical facility components: Tanks, pipes, valves, electrolytic cells, compressors, liquefier water purification systems, cranes, horizontal/vertical vessels.

Typical raw materials: Water, salt, electricity.

Typical finished products: Chlorine gas, caustic soda.

440

Vinyl Plants

n/a

Facilities that make or process polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin, commonly referred to as "vinyl". Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is made by processing and combining ethylene and chlorine. VCM is the main raw material for PVC polymerization. VCM, which is gaseous under normal conditions, is stored under pressure to keep it in a liquid state.

Typical facility components: Reactors, tanks, agitators, stripping column, boiler, water treatment systems, transformers.

Typical raw materials: VCM (g) [Ethylene (g), Chlorine (g)]

Typical finished products: VCM (I) to produce PVCs..

441

Light Hydrocarbon or Aromatics Plants

n/a

Facilities that process light hydrocarbons and aromatics, which are part of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical feedstock (naphtha) is a product of oil refineries. Naphtha goes through a plant where cracking units convert it to propylene and ethylene as well as to other light hydrocarbons and aromatics. This same process can be done with natural gas.

Typical facility components: Furnaces, distillation towers, crackers, compressors, condensers, pressurized vessels.

Typical raw materials: Naphtha (I), natural gas (ethane [g], LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) (l).

Typical finished products: Ethylene (g), propylene (g), and other light hydrocarbons (g) (I).

442

Plastics Plants

n/a

Facilities that process many different chemicals to produce plastic polymers that will later be used as raw material in the production of plastic products in other facilities. Naphtha goes through a plant where cracking units convert it to propylene and ethylene as well as to other light hydrocarbons and aromatics. Polymerization then creates polymer (plastic) pellets or powder. This same process can be done with natural gas.

Typical facility components: Reactors, powder tank.

Typical raw materials: Ethylene (g), Propylene (g)]

Typical finished products: Homopolymers Polypropylenes, copolymers.

443

Chlorohydrin Plants

n/a

Facilities that use the chlorohydrin process to manufacture several  chemicals. The facilities are commonly referred to as propylene oxide plants.

Typical facility components: Reactor vessels, many types of chemical separation columns (vacuum stripper columns, dechlorination columns, compressors, storage tanks, waste water treatment systems.

Typical raw materials: Propylene gas, lime, and chlorine gas.

Typical finished products: Propylene oxide, polyols, polyurethane, and propylene glycol.

444

Fertilizer Plants

n/a

Facilities that produce multiple downstream fertilizer products. Since fertilizer can be based on many different chemicals, there can be multiple types of fertilizer plants, each of which can produce multiple downstream fertilizer products. For example, ammonia is the building block in the production of  all nitrogen-based fertilizers; a facility that produces ammonia often produces other downstream fertilizer products, such as urea, ammonium nitrate, and/or nitrogen solutions. Ammonia is produced by combining nitrogen (g) and hydrogen (g). For commercial production hydrogen is produced from hydrocarbons (natural gas, petroleum, etc.) via steam re-forming. Ammonia is a main component in many other chemical processes and products. Ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and urea plants are often located adjacent to ammonia plants. Ammonia is combined with carbon dioxide to create a solid that is the most popular solid nitrogenous fertilizer. Urea is a relatively non-toxic, and non-flammable solid that can be stored as prills or granules in bags and shipped easily.

Typical facility components: Tanks, liquefier, distillation columns, desulfurization units, ammonia and other reactors, high/low pressure condensers/coolers, reboilers, compressors (ammonia, CO2, syngas, and other gasses), liquid ammonia pumps, strippers, liquid, and gas retention vessels.

Typical raw materials: LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) (I), natural gas (methane (g), nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorous, potassium, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sulfur.

Typical finished products: Liquid ammonia (I), carbon dioxide (g), ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, nitric phosphate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphates, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, potassium chloride, ureas.

445

Cement Plants/Cement Mills

n/a

Facilities that crush raw materials into fine powder (clinker). The clinker is then heated in a rotary kiln at 1400 C to1500 C. The raw materials are usually taken from a quarry. Minerals are added to the clinker and it is ground into a finer powder at a cement mill.

Typical facility components: Rotary kiln/furnace, coal storage/grinder, stone grinder, raw mill, ball roller/vertical roller mill, pre heating tower, clinker cooler, powder storage silos, conveyor systems, air filters, water cooling systems.

Typical raw materials: Limestone, gypsum/other minerals, sand/clay, and coal.

Typical finished products: Cement powder.

446

Other Chemical and Allied Products

n/a

Facilities that may not fall under previous categories, such as: fine chemical facilities, Research & Development (R & D) facilities, and facilities that manufacture paints, varnishes, synthetic gasses and materials, and other resins, polymers, and chemicals.

Typical facility components: Distillation columns, pipelines, centrifuge, reactors, tanks, silos, pressurized vessels, scrubbers, conveyor systems, cooling systems, compressors, condensers, heat exchangers, dryers, and filters.

Typical raw materials: All raw materials that fall in the family of chemical plants.

Typical finished products: Fine chemicals, paints, formaldehyde, bisphenol A, gasses (hydrogen, CO2, nitrogen, and oxygen).

449

Metal and Minerals Processing - General

n/a

Facilities that process metals and minerals. Includes the smelting and refining of metals, the manufacture of castings, other basic metal products, nails, spikes, insulated wire and cable, the production of coke, the fabrication of metal products (including metal cans, tinware, hand tools, cutlery, general hardware, and metal forging).

450

Primary Metal Industry

n/a

Facilities that process primary metals. This manufacturing sector is a subset of the manufacturing sector. Industries in this sub sector smelt and/or refine ferrous and nonferrous metals from ore, pig iron, or scrap iron, using electrometallurgical and other process metallurgical techniques.

Typical facility components: Furnaces, plate rollers, continuous casting rollers, ingot molds, rebar rollers, tanks (for electrolysis).

Typical raw materials: All ores, processed metals, recycled metals, coal, coke, and limestone.

Typical finished products: Beams, plates, ingots, cathodes, bars, pipes, and wire.

451

Steel Mills

n/a

Facilities that manufacture steel, an alloy of iron and carbon. The mill takes mined coal and iron ore and combines them chemically to fabricate molded and rolled or cast products.

Typical facility components: Blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace, electric arc furnace, ladle furnace, continuous casting machine, and rolling mill.

Typical raw materials: Limestone, iron ore, and coal.

Typical finished products: Slabs, billets, hot rolled plates, hot rolled coils, sheet rolls, bars (round or square), pipes, wire,, structural shaped steel (I-beam, L-beam, rebar).

452

Smelters

n/a

Facilities that process raw mined materials (ore) to produce pure metal of all types. The metal extraction process from an ore (usually mixed with purifying and/or heat generating substances such as limestone and coke) is similar for all types of metal. The ore is heated at high temperature in an enclosed furnace. After a reducing reaction, lighter ore-components (impurities called slag or tailing) rise to the top and float on the molten metal. Smelting is opposite of roasting which involves an oxidizing reaction.

Typical facility components: Furnaces, scrubbers, kilns (roasters), and chimneys.

Typical raw materials: Carbonates, sulfides, oxides, coke, malachite (copper ore), and galena (lead ore).

Typical finished products: Lead, tin, bronze, copper, aluminum, iron, slag, silver, and sulfuric acid.

455

High Technology - General

n/a

Facilities that includes occupancies involved in the manufacture of machinery and supplies for the generation, storage, transmission, transformation, and use of electrical energy including electricity distribution equipment, industrial apparatus, household appliances, electrical lighting, and wiring equipment. Includes manufacturing instruments for measuring, testing, analyzing, and controlling, optical instruments and lenses, surveying and drafting instruments, hydrological, meteorological, navigational, surgical, medical, ophthalmic, and photographic equipment, semi-conductor, computer/electronic devices, and allied products.

456

Semi-conductor and Related Devices

n/a

Facilities that build integrated circuits as part of the microelectronics industry. The facilities are typically very expensive due to the extremely high manufacturing specifications. They are purpose-built, not repurposed facilities.

Typical facility components: Clean rooms (climate controlled, air-tight rooms with vibration dampening), steppers, photo/lithograph, etching, cleaning, doping and dicing machines, and air filtration systems.

Typical raw materials: Silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide.

Typical finished products: Multi-component integrated circuits, LEDs (light-emitting diodes).

457

Electronic Computer Devices

n/a

Facilities that mount, connect, assemble, and secure parts and components of electronic equipment to bring together the pieces of equipment used every day.

Typical facility components: Cutting/molding/etching machines (laser, water, and drill), computers, conveyor system/assembly line (automated, semi-automated, and manual), and packaging machines.

Typical raw materials: Metals, plastics, microchips, wires, printed circuit boards, CPU stocks, resistors, transistors, batteries and connectors, hard drives, and touch screens..

Typical finished products: Computers, smart phones, tablets, gaming systems, transmitters, receivers, medical equipment, measuring devices, and automotive mechanisms.

458

Computer Storage Devices

n/a

Facilities that manufacture devices for the storage and retrieval of data from computers. The facilities are similar to semiconductor facilities, and are highly concerned with climate and quality control. They are purpose-built facilities that you can expect to be highly engineered in most cases.

Typical facility components: Clean rooms, cutting/molding/etching machines (laser, water, and drill), computers, conveyor systems/assembly lines (automated, semi-automated, and manual), and packaging machines.

Typical raw materials: Rigid platters (composed of a substrate and a magnetic medium), the substrate (aluminum alloy or a mixture of glass and ceramic), silicon, chromium, cobalt, and platinum.

Typical finished products: Internal and external magnetic hard disk drives, optical disks, and USB drives.

459

Electron Tubes

n/a

Facilities that manufacture electron tubes that no longer exist.

460

Printed Circuit Boards

n/a

Facilities that manufacture printed circuit boards: a board is a self-containing module of interconnected electronic components used in almost ever electronic device. These facilities are similar to the 420-422 facilities; however, only printed circuit boards are further used in production of the product from the 420-422 groups as well as the 457 group.

Typical facility components: Clean rooms, lamination machines, drills, soldering machines, vacuum chambers, assembly machines/lines, quality control areas, and air filtration systems.

Typical raw materials: Fiberglass, copper, tin, nickel, and gold.

Typical finished products: Printed circuit boards.

463

General Building/Construction Contractors

n/a

Includes general contractors and builders of residential, farm, industrial, commercial, and other buildings, as well as general contractors involved in heavy construction including highways, streets, bridges, tunnels, etc. Also included are special trade contractors including painting, electrical work, carpentry work, plumbing, heating, roofing, etc.

464

Heavy Construction

n/a

Facilities that are involved in the process of building, renovating, or replacing structures or infrastructures using a wide range of materials. This process is done on site and often involves earth moving as well as utilities moving or expansion. The work is usually a collaboration by several workers specializing in various fields. Projects range from small houses to mega projects that take years and often change surrounding areas.

Typical facility components: Excavators, cranes, trucks, scaffolding, lifts, material storage, temporary retaining walls, and waste product store and removal..

Typical raw materials: Pre-stressed concrete (deep/shallow foundations, slabs, columns, and beams), steel (beams, rebar, cables, and pipes), wood (beams, boards), plumbing (pipes, valves, sprinkler systems, and tanks), drywall, electrical wiring, and HVAC systems.

Typical finished products: Buildings, houses, bridges, roads, parking garages, retaining walls, and other structures.

465

Special Trade Contractors

n/a

Special trade contractors may work on subcontract from the general contractor, performing certain tasks, or they may work directly for the owner. For the most part, special trade contractors perform their work at the site of construction. They might have shops where they perform work incidental to the job site.

Typical facility components: All construction equipment.

Typical raw materials: Pipes, wires, paint, wood, rock, drywall, and glass.

Typical finished products: Plumbing (pipes, valves, sprinkler systems, and tanks), drywall, electrical wiring, and HVAC systems.

470

Mining - General

n/a

Mining involves the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposits that form the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.

471

Mining Operations

n/a

Facilities that extract valuable minerals or other geological materials from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposits that form the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.

Typical facility components: Blasting equipment, excavating heavy equipment (draglines, jackhammers, high-/longwall shearers, trucks), roof supports, conveyor systems, computer control systems, cart and other rail systems, air filtration and movement systems, pumps, crushers, classifiers (washers, screens).

Typical raw materials: Land.

Typical finished products: Ores recovered by mining, including metals, coal, shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay.

472

Metal Mining

n/a

Facilities that extract metals from the ground. A metal ore is usually mined for later processing and refining into metal. However, in some cases, large enough pure metal particles can be extracted straight from the ground and do not need to be processed, such as in smaller gold mining operations.

Typical facility components: Blasting equipment, excavating heavy equipment (draglines, jackhammers, high-/longwall shearers, trucks), roof supports, conveyor systems, computer control systems, cart and other rail systems, air filtration and movement systems, pumps, crushers, classifiers (washers, screens).

Typical raw materials: Land.

Typical finished products: Copper ore, iron ore, all other ores, lead, gold, and silver.

473

Coal Mining

n/a

Facilities that extract coal from the ground through underground mines or surface mines (large open cut , strip mines). A coal mine and its structures are referred to as a colliery.

Typical facility components: Blasting equipment, excavating heavy equipment (draglines, jackhammers, high-/longwall shearers, trucks), roof supports, conveyor systems, computer control systems, cart and other rail systems, air filtration and movement systems, pumps, crushers, classifiers (washers, screens).

Typical raw materials: Large areas of land.

Typical finished products: Coal.

474

Mining/Quarrying - Non-Metallic Mineral (Except Fuels)

n/a

Facilities that extract valuable minerals from the ground. The extraction methods can be broken down into above ground or below ground. In each of these categories there are several methods. These facilities also include the separation of minerals from waste material.

Typical facility components: Blasting equipment, excavating heavy equipment (draglines, jackhammers, high-/longwall shearers, trucks), roof supports, conveyor systems, computer control systems, cart and other rail systems, air filtration and movement systems, pumps, crushers, classifiers (washers, screens).

Typical raw materials: Large areas of land.

Typical finished products: Limestone, sand, gravel, potash, soda, borate, clay, and precious gems (diamonds).

475

Oil Refinery Systems - General

n/a

Facilities that process crude oil is and refine it into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout that carry streams of fluids (petroleum and commodities other than natural gas) between large chemical processing units. Includes establishments involved in petroleum refining, in the manufacture of paving and roofing materials, and in the manufacture of compounding and lubricating oils and greases.

Typical facility components: Tanks, pipes, valves, boilers/furnaces, distillation towers, water treatment systems, and chimneys.

Typical raw materials: Crude oil.

Typical finished products: Gasoline, diesel, LPG, asphalt, wax, sulfur, petrochemicals, kerosene, butanes, naphtha, and petroleum coke..

476

Hydro-Electric Power Systems - General

n/a

Facilities that are engaged in the generation, transmission, and/or distribution of electric energy for sale. The class includes electric power generation, transmission, dams, or distribution. The facilities produce electricity by letting water behind a dam to pass through turbines that spin generators. The height of the water built up behind the dam determines the amount of power the plant can produce.

Typical facility components: Dam, Francis turbine, generator, cranes, pipes (penstock), valves, control panels, and transformers.

Typical raw materials: Water.

Typical finished products: Electricity.

477

Thermo-Electric Power Systems - General

n/a

Facilities that convert heat to electric power. Fossil fuels, nuclear, and solar heat energy are all used to heat water, converting it to steam that drives a turbine creating electric power. Fossil fuels globally dominate these plants.

Typical facility components: Turbines, cooling towers, generators, boilers, transformers, chimney stacks, condensers, pumps, and electricity transmission towers.

Typical raw materials: Water, coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and uranium-235.

Typical waste products: Ash, sludge, CO2, and radioactive waste).

479

Electric Substations

n/a

Facilities that are part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform electricity voltages from high to low or vice-versa depending on the requirements. They form the middle man between the power generating source and the consumer (of electricity). Substations do not require on-site personnel.

Substations generally contain one or more transformers and have switching, protection, and control equipment. Circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Substations here do not have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. A typical substation will contain line termination structures, high-voltage switch gear, power transformers, switch gear, surge protection, controls, grounding (earthing) system, lightning arrester, and metering. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation.

Typical facility components: Transformers, control equipment, circuit breakers, capacitors, and voltage regulators.

480

Potable Water Systems - General

n/a

Facilities that treat incoming water sources that may or may not be safe for the production of safe drinking water that is supplied to towns and cities. These facilities are primarily engaged in distributing water for sale for domestic, commercial, and industrial use.

Typical facility components: Pipes, tunnels, tanks, rapid mixers, flocculators, pumps, dissolved air flotation (DAF) systems, filters, UV radiation systems, computerized monitoring and feedback systems, continuous water quality testing at all stages of treatment, multiple backup systems, emergency generator, standby ozone generators, and aqueduct connection cutoffs.

Typical raw materials: Water (reservoir), treatment chemicals (alum, polyaluminum chloride, chlorine, caustic soda, polymer, potassium permanganate, and fluoride).

Typical finished products: Water suitable for drinking.

481

Waste Water Treatment Systems - General

n/a

Facilities that are primarily engaged in the collection and disposal of wastes conducted through a sewer system, including such treatment processes as may be provided, and establishments primarily engaged in the collection and disposal of refuse by processing or destruction, or in the operation of incinerators, waste treatment plants, landfills, or other sites for disposal of such materials.

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater (water that is no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use) into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused. Most facilities that conduct this process are government regulated and treat human waste and drainage, However, this also includes the “wastewater treatment plants/systems” located on site at large industrial facilities such as refineries.

Typical facility components: Tanks (raw water, separation, and sedimentation), filtration systems, clarifiers, pumps, and pipes.

Typical raw materials: Sewage (human waste), storm water (drainage), industrial waste water, biosolids, and chemicals.

Typical finished products: Clean water for reuse, sewage sludge, grit, and disposal water.

482

Gas Processing Systems - General

n/a

Facilities that “clean” raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as 'pipeline quality' dry natural gas. A gas processing plant is also used to recover natural gas liquids (condensate, natural gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas) and occasionally other substances such as sulfur.

The facilities are engaged in the transmission and distribution and/or storage of natural gas for sale.

Typical facility components: Pipelines, distillation columns, fractionating columns, compressors, cooling systems, heaters, and scrubbers.

Typical raw materials: Natural gas.

Typical finished products: Pipeline-quality dry natural gas, LNG, ethane, propane, butanes, and pentanes.

486

International Ports

n/a

Large container seaports that specialize in handling goods transported in shipping containers. An international container port typically handles more than one million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) annually.

487

Airport Systems -- General

n/a

Typically refers to  public-use airports receiving at least 2,500 passengers annually. Also includes airports with fewer than 2,500 passengers annually that can serve public air transportation needs in case of congestion at primary commercial service airports.

 


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Touchstone 5.0 Updated January 17, 2019