Location Wall Detail Fields

The following table describes the Touchstone location fields related to the wall detail for this location:

 

Touchstone supports secondary building characteristics for the following models and perils:

       AIR Bushfire Model for Australia (AU WF)

       AIR Coastal Flood Model for Great Britain (GB CF)

       AIR Earthquake Model for Canada (CA EQ)

       AIR Earthquake Model for Hawaii (HI EQ)

       AIR Earthquake Model for Japan (JP EQ)

       AIR Earthquake Model for the United States (US EQ)

       AIR Hurricane Model for the United States (US HU), including the Storm Surge module, as well as the AIR Tropical Cyclone Model for Hawaii (HI TC)

       AIR Inland Flood Model for Central Europe (including Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, and Switzerland) (CE IF)

       AIR Inland Flood Model for Great Britain (GB IF)

       AIR Inland Flood Model for Japan (JP IF)

       AIR Inland Flood Model for the United States (US IF)

       AIR Typhoon Model for Japan (JP TY)

       AIR Severe Thunderstorm Model for the United States (US ST), including the Straight-Line Wind, Tornado, and Hail sub-perils

       AIR U.S. Hurricane Model for Offshore Assets (US HU OS)

       AIR Wildfire Model for California (US WF)

Each secondary building characteristic is applicable to only a subset of these models (perils), as the Perils column in the table below indicates.

Field

Perils

Description

Validation Rules

Default Value

Wall Type

       CA EQ

       HI EQ

       HI TC

       JP EQ

       US EQ

       US HU

       US ST - Straight-Line Winds, Tornados

One of the following values to describe the materials used for the external walls of the building at this location:

       Unknown/default (0)

       Brick/unreinforced masonry (1)

       Reinforced masonry (2)

       Plywood (3)

       Wood planks (4)

       Particle board/OSB (oriented strand board) (5)

       Metal panels (6)

       Pre-cast concrete elements (7)

       Cast-in-place concrete (8)

       Gypsum board (9)

 

Different types of wall materials offer varying degrees of resistance to wind-induced lateral loads. Breaches in the wall can result in internal pressure buildup.

 

With respect to seismic performance, some wall forms can contribute to increasing the lateral-load capacity of a building, while others tend to act independently when shaken.

       Optional

       Defaults to a value in the Touchstone user interface

Unknown/default (0)

Wall Siding

       AU WF

       CA EQ

       HI EQ

       HI TC

       JP EQ

       US EQ

       US HU

       US ST - Straight-Line Winds, Tornados, Hail

       US WF

One of the following values to describe the materials used for the weather protection of the external walls of the building at this location:

       Unknown/default (0)

       Veneer brick/masonry (1)

       Wood shingles (2)

       Clapboards (3)

       Aluminum/vinyl siding (4)

       Stone panels (5)

       Exterior insulation finishing system (6)

       Stucco (7)

 

Wall sidings offer protection from wind and rain. Different types of wall siding materials have varying degrees of wind load resistance. A breach in wall sidings can expose the wall to wind and rain, resulting in water intrusion and internal pressure buildup.

 

Different types of cladding materials offer varying degrees of resistance to earthquake-induced lateral loads. Veneer and stone panels in particular are more susceptible to falling off in an earthquake.

       Optional

       Defaults to a value in the Touchstone user interface

Unknown/default (0)

Glass Type

       HI TC

       US HU

       US ST - Straight-Line Winds, Tornados, Hail

One of the following values to describe the type of glass used in the building at this location:

       Unknown/default (0)

       Annealed (1)

       Tempered (2)

       Heat strengthened (3)

       Laminated (4)

       Insulating glass units (5)

 

Different glass types have varying degrees of resistance to wind loads and debris impact.

       Optional

       Defaults to a value in the Touchstone user interface

Unknown/default (0)

Glass Percentage

       HI TC

       US HU

       US ST - Straight-Line Winds, Tornados, Hail

One of the following values to describe the percentage of the wall area that is covered by glass for the building at this location:

       Unknown/default (0)

       Less than 5% (1)

       Between 5% and 20% (2)

       Between 20% and 60% (3)

       Greater than 60% (4)

 

The greater the percent of glass in a wall, the greater the vulnerability to damage, in general.

       Optional

       Defaults to a value in the Touchstone user interface

Unknown/default (0)

Window Protection

       HI TC

       US HU

       US ST - Straight-Line Winds, Tornados, Hail

One of the following values to describe the type of wind protection system used for the windows of the building at this location:

       Unknown/default (0)

       No protection (1)

       Non-engineered shutters (2)

       Engineered shutters (3)

 

Protecting the windows can reduce the potential damage to a building.

       Optional

       Defaults to a value in the Touchstone user interface

Unknown/default (0)

Exterior Doors

       HI TC

       US HU

       US ST - Straight-Line Winds, Tornados

One of the following values to describe the type of doors used on the exterior of the building at this location:

       Unknown/default (0)

       Single width Doors (1)

       Double width Doors (2)

       Reinforced single width doors (3)

       Reinforced double width doors (4)

       Sliding doors (5)

       Reinforced sliding doors (6)

 

Exterior doors are weak in resisting wind loads. The frame that holds the doors is also weak in resisting wind loads. They deflect considerably under high wind loads and, thus, fail.

       Optional

       Defaults to a value in the Touchstone user interface

Unknown/default (0)

Building Exterior Opening

       CA EQ

       HI EQ

       JP EQ

       US EQ

One of the following values to describe the percentage of exterior walls that are open (that is, that have windows or doors) for the building at this location:

       Unknown (0)

       Less than 50% of wall open / default (1)

       More than 50% of wall open (2)

 

Note that this field is reserved for future use in the Japan Earthquake model.

 

A shear wall with many openings for windows and doors has less resistance to earthquake loads. Buildings with walls that are more than 50% open are evaluated as having less seismic resistance than they would otherwise.

Optional

 

Brick Veneer

       CA EQ

       HI EQ

       JP EQ

       US EQ

One of the following values to describe the percentage of exterior walls that are brick veneer for the building at this location:

       Unknown/default (0) (represents 50-90%)

       More than 90% (1)

       25-50% (2)

       0-25% (3)

 

Note that this field is reserved for future use in the Japan Earthquake model.

 

The masonry of brick veneer is typically unreinforced and is likely to crack and come loose when subjected to ground shaking. Therefore, buildings with this type of exterior siding are more likely to experience direct damage from repair of the masonry, and possible indirect damage due to repair of adjacent components that may be damaged caused by falling debris from the veneer.

       Optional

       You should use this field in conjunction with the 103 - masonry veneer construction code.

 

 


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Touchstone 4.0 Updated June 13, 2018